Control Voluntary Turnover by Controlling its Causes (Chapter written by Marion Eberly, Brooks Holtom, Thomas Lee and Terrence Mitchell). Turnover is not beneficial if average and above average employees quit because valuable job knowledge can be lost to the organization. What are some approaches to understanding turnover? One is looking at job dissatisfaction which is usually associated with thinking about quitting and thence to actual quitting. A second approach is to look for causes involving unexpected “shocks” such as change of life plans or specific negative experiences or disliked organizational changes. A third approach is to study the presence or lack of job “embeddedness”—factors which tie the individual to the organization such a links to the community where the organization is located or vested interests such as retirement plans. A fourth approach is to try to actively manage turnover, not only by being aware of and eliminating the causes of unwanted turnover but also by terminating ineffective performers and replacing overpaid employees.
Pay for Performance (Chapter by Cathy Durham and Kay Bartol). Every organization likes to say that in some form it pays for performance but this is much easier said than done. But the issue is important because if people believe they are not paid fairly, they are likely to leave the organization. In addition to pay not being based on valid performance appraisals, many times people are simply paid for the wrong outcome (e.g., quantity without quality). Thus as with performance appraisal, the behaviors and outcomes desired need to be defined and measured objectively. Effective pay systems must be communicated clearly, be consistent with employee values, be combined with other motivators (e.g., challenging, interesting work, and behavior and performance goals), and tie into the organization’s culture. Also the organization has to decide if incentives should be based at the individual, group or organizational level or some combination of these. Incentive plans must also take account of the amount of risk employees are willing to bear.
Achieve Work-Family Balance (Chapter by Boris Baltes and Malissa Clark). The opposite of work family balance is work-family conflict. This can occur because work pressures conflict with family or family issues conflict with work. The most common causal factors are stress and time. (Time itself is a common source of stress). Organizational policies that can reduce work issues include flextime, compressed work weeks, telecommuting, on-site child care, part-time work and job sharing. Individuals can also learn personal strategies at work and with the family, e.g., setting clear priorities, increasing skills, getting outside help, that reduce conflict.
Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior: Indispensable Knowledge for Evidence-Based Management, 2nd Edition Professor Edwin Locke (Editor) ISBN: 978-0-470-74094-1 Paperback 662 pages September 2009 R900.00
Developed from decades of research and consulting, this international handbook identifies 30 timeless management principles every manager should know. With contributions from some of the foremost experts in organizational behavior, this insightful book demonstrates how theories of organizational behavior can be successfully applied to the workplace. With additional coverage on change, leadership, and knowledge, the new updated edition includes contributions from such notables as Teresa Amabile, Jay Conger, Fred Luthans, Antonio DeNisi, and Michael Beer.
The Handbook has 26 additional chapters focused mainly around organizational behavior issues (e.g., motivation, satisfaction, team dynamics, leadership, organizational processes (such as decision making, trust, and communication), organizational structure, entrepreneurship, and national culture. Each chapter has illustrative cases and class exercises. In most cases each chapter is focused around a single principle so that, unlike a typical textbook, the material is readily retained. Since all the chapters are evidence-based, the principles have practical utility.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Edwin A. Locke, Dean's Professor of Leadership and Motivation (Emeritus), Robert H. Smith School of Business. For more information please email Edwin at firstname.lastname@example.org .